Dioctophyme Renale - an overview (2023)

Causative agent: Dioctophyme renale, giant kidney worm, is the largest parasitic nematode of domestic animals (family Dioctophymidae and order Ascaridida).

From:Greene's Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat (peto izdanje), 2021.

Related terms:

  • Nematodes
  • Thelazia
  • Physaloptera
  • Zoonosis
  • eggs
  • Kidneys
  • Dracunculus
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Nematoda (roundworms)

Jules J. Berman, inA taxonomic guide to infectious diseases, 2012 (encyclopedic entry).

Renal dioctophym, also known as giant kidney worm, is a rare cause of human disease. Humans, one of the many animals that serve as primary hosts, are infected by ingesting an undercooked second intermediate host (usually a fish or frog) that in turn has ingested the first intermediate host (a freshwater worm). Swallowed larvae penetrate the human intestines and migrate to the liver. From the liver, they migrate to the kidney (usually unilateral, usually the right kidney), where they become adults. Eggs laid by adult worms are excreted in the urine. Infection with large adult worms usually leads to kidney destruction if left untreated. The human disease is rare and can occur anywhere in the world.


In the second half





(Video) Giant kidney worms in dogs (Dioctophyme renale)






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Various nematode infections

Jennifer K. Ketzis, ... Judit M. Wulcan, uGreene's Infectious Diseases of Dogs and Cats (Fifth Edition), 2021

Etiology and epidemiology

Renal dioctophym(also calledKidney dioctophyma, especially in human literature), the giant kidney worm is the largest nematode of domestic animals. The parasite has a sporadic distribution worldwide, although reports of infection are rare in Africa and Asia. It is widespread in America, and has been recorded in dogs and other hosts from Canada to Brazil. Adults are usually dark red and thick, often 1 cm or more in diameter; immature worms can be creamy white and smaller. Females are larger than males and can be 50 to 100 cm long.Renal dioctophymis located in adiversity of fish-eating mammals; martens and other mustelids are considered definitive hosts. Adult nematodes don't get that big when they're in a cage. In domestic animals infection withD. renaleit most often occurs in dogs and, occasionally, cats, but it has also been described in pigs, cattle and horses.156,157Whether the genus name wasDioctophimorDipctophymawas disputed for more than 2 centuries, but was resolved as"Dioctophim"1989. (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).

Eggs are transmitted through the urine of an infected host and live in the environment for a long time. First-stage larvae develop inside eggs, a temperature-dependent process; larvae can develop in as little as 30 days at 25 to 30°C or even 7 months at lower temperatures.158Aquatic oligochaete annelids commonly called mud worms (e.g.Lumbriculus variegatus) serve as intermediate hosts. Annelids ingest eggs; the larvae then hatch, penetrate tissues and develop through successive molts to third instar larvae. These larvae are immediately infective to martens and dogs as definitive hosts if the annelids are ingested. However, more often a fish or frog bridges the ecological gap by ingesting the ring and serves as a paratenic host.158

Mink, dogs and, rarely, cats become infected when they ingest infective larvae in the tissues of paratenic hosts, most commonly freshwater fish. The larvae emerge from the paratenic tissues of the host, penetrate the duodenal wall and migrate directly to the kidney. Considering the anatomical proximity of the duodenum, the right kidney is most often infected. Adult worms develop over several months, and infections become apparent in 4 to 6 months or even 2 years.158Adult worms can also remain in the abdominal cavity.

Infection of dogs withD. renaleit is mostly sporadic and few epidemiological studies have been conducted. Dogs withD. renaleinfections in Manitoba were co-infected withMetorchis conjunctionand clinically normal on examination, but at autopsy had extensive destruction of the right kidney and, occasionally, hypertrophy of the left kidney.159In Brazil, dogs withD. renaleFemales, fed fish or fish offal by their owners, known to eat frogs and drinking water from a river known to contain infected ringed pupae, were more likely to become infected.159Some authors do not consider dogs as definitive hosts because few worms are usually present in infected dogs, and infections are often not obvious. However, eggs obtained from dogs have been shown to be fertile and develop larvae, so dogs are thought to contribute to parasite transmission in some environments.160

(Video) The Giant Kidney Worm in the Dog. Veterinarian explains.

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Medical treatment of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

Elizabeth E. Hammond, inFowler's Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2012 (encyclopedic entry).

Wild maned wolves

Wild maned wolves are known to become infected with giant kidney worm(Renal dioctophym)eating paratenics (aquatic molluscs) or intermediate hosts (fish or frogs).6,18The parasite migrates to the right kidney, where it causes irreversible damage. However, maned wolves are known to survive with one functioning kidney.

Nematode (Trichuris,Ancylostoma, iToxocaraspp.) and cestodes have also been found in wild maned wolves, although their impact on morbidity and mortality is unknown. Ticks and carp larvae are ectoparasites that affect wild maned wolves.

Cystinuria is another disease that has been recorded in wild maned wolves. Field studies in Bolivia and Brazil have documented cystinuria, although its impact on wild populations is unknown.5,8,27

Maned wolves are susceptible to diseases that affect domestic dogs, and recent studies show that infectious diseases threaten wild maned wolf populations.4,6Domestic animals in rural areas are rarely vaccinated against common diseases. Human encroachment on maned wolf habitat provides an opportunity for domestic animal-wildlife interaction, and increased exposure to domestic carnivore diseases such as parvovirus, leptospirosis, and toxoplasmosis is a significant problem.

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Hygiene in primary production

Gisela Kopper, ... Dijana Blažeković-Dimovska, inFood Safety Management (Second Edition), 2023

Zoonoses of fish helminths

Fish can also appear as carriers or as transitional hosts of certain types of parasites that attack humans. Numerous marine and freshwater fish serve as sources of medically important parasitic zoonoses. Most of these zoonoses are found in coastal areas of seas, large lakes and rivers, where fish and its products are further consumed. However, the increasing consumption of fish, as well as the new trend of the so-called "natural cooking", the number of registered zoonoses is continuously increasing. The potential danger of human infestation by certain helminths still exists, as several helminthozoonoses have been recorded in Europe: trematode metacercariaeOpisthorchis felineus,Pseudomphistomus truncatum,Flattened clinostoma,Metagonimus yokogawai,Heterophyes heterophyes,Cryptocotyle lingua,Echinochasmus perfoliatus, wheel cestode plerocercoidDiphyllobothriumand nematode larvae:Renal dioctophym,anisakis simplexiGnathostoma hispidum, etc. Zoonotic transmission of some bacterial diseases, such as streptococcus or mycobacteriosis, is also possible.

In most cases, fish zoonotic parasites do not lead to major health problems in fish.

Fish parasites usually cause little or moderate damage to the human body. But some of them are more common and pose a serious threat to human health. Some show abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, nausea, vomiting, weight loss or anorexia. Hepatomegaly, eosinophilia, tetanic convulsions, tremors, and toxemia may also occur.

In general, fish can be either an intermediate host of parasites involving man as the definitive host or a carrier of animal parasite larvae that invade human tissues only for a limited period without further development. The latter are considered accidental infections. Natural definitive hosts for parasites are usually marine mammals or birds. However, the larval stages of several fish-borne parasites can mature in both animals and humans.

Fish-borne trematodiasis is particularly important in Southeast Asia, the Far East, and regions where people depend on freshwater fish as a major source of protein. Infections with both large and small digenetic trematodes are common. Although the diseases are rarely fatal, they can cause morbidity and serious complications. The route of infection is through the ingestion of metacercariae found in the muscles and subcutaneous and other tissues of fish.

There are relatively few cases of infection with cestodes transmitted by fish in humans. Cestodes that mature in the small intestine of humans are not highly pathogenic and the diseases are never fatal. Diphyllobotriasis is the main cestodiasis transmitted by freshwater, marine and anadromous fish.

Fish-borne nematodiases are generally caused by accidental human infection with nematodes whose natural definitive hosts are marine mammals, birds, pigs or other animals. Freshwater, brackish or marine fish are other intermediate hosts. In most infections, the worms can only survive for a limited period after the initial invasion of the gastrointestinal tract. The way of infection is by swallowing the larvae of the infectious stage, which can be found in the muscles, intestines or internal organs of the fish. Unlike cestodia, some nematode infections can be fatal. In the Netherlands, since the adoption of the law against eating raw herring and the requirement that the fish be frozen before sale, anisakiasis has almost disappeared. Freezing fish for 24 hours or heating processed fish to 65°C can kill larvae. Also, gutting the fish soon after they are caught prevents larvae from migrating into the muscles.

In theory, fish-borne parasitic zoonoses can be easily prevented by refraining from eating raw seafood. However, in many parts of the world, such eating habits represent an established way of life or part of an inherent culture. It cannot be easily changed, not even by implementing a strong educational program or passing laws. Therefore, these diseases will remain public health problems, and it is necessary to conduct regular epidemiological research. These studies, however, cannot be carried out effectively without the development of more cost-effective, sensitive and specific diagnostic methods that can be used in comprehensive fish surveys. The use of molecular biological techniques can also help to clarify species of questionable validity and to trace the source of infection. Stronger support is needed for this neglected area of ​​research.

You can find more information about parasitic diseases inFDA (2021.),Hristovski and Stojanovski (2005.),OIE (2021.)iWoo (2006).

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Kidneys and ureters

Gabriela S. Seiler, inTextbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology (Seventh Edition), 2018 (encyclopedic entry).

Abnormal kidney structure

Diffuse abnormalities of the parenchyma

The structure of the kidney is best assessed by ultrasound. As stated earlier, normal kidney size and structure do not rule out the presence of kidney disease. In fact, it is common for patients with acute kidney injury and glomerulonephritis to have normal-appearing kidneys on ultrasound.47,48Because of the great variability in normal kidney size, architecture, and echogenicity, subtle changes in kidney structure cannot always be detected. Increased renal echogenicity is the most common ultrasound disorder and is observed in both acute and chronic nephropathy. Ultrasound findings associated with acute kidney injury leading to acute tubular nephrosis or necrosis, interstitial nephritis, or glomerulonephritis include renal enlargement, subcapsular or perirenal effusion, and cortical hyperechogenicity. In severe or advanced disease, medullary echogenicity also increases, leading to reduced corticomedullary distinction. Acute kidney injury in dogs and cats has many causes, including toxins (eg, ethylene glycol, lily of the valley in cats, and grapes in dogs), bacterial, protozoal, and rickettsial infections (eg, leptospirosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease, pyelonephritis), drugs, hypercalcemia, sepsis, ischemia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, pancreatitis and hyperviscosity.49Ultrasound is usually unable to determine the cause of acute kidney injury, so a biopsy may be necessary. Doppler examination of the renal vasculature with resistive index calculation can add some information. For example, an increase in renal resistive index is seen with active tubulointerstitial or vascular disease; however, it remains a non-specific parameter.50Ethylene glycol toxicity leads to the most dramatic increase in cortical and medullary echogenicity with a hypoechoic rim at the corticomedullary junction and hypoechoic central medullary regions (Figure 41.12). Increased echogenicity is attributed to the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys.51,52

Renal lymphoma tends to occur bilaterally and causes enlarged, irregularly shaped kidneys with a hyperechoic cortex. Focal or multifocal nodules and masses have also been reported.53,54A subcapsular, hypoechoic rim is associated with feline renal lymphoma, with a positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 66.7%.55Subcapsular thickening is thought to represent a regional subcapsular infiltrate with lymphoma rather than fluid (Figure 41.13).55

A hyperechoic medullary rim parallel to the corticomedullary junction is often observed. It can be seen with mineralization, necrosis, and hemorrhage associated with many different diseases, including acute tubular necrosis, leptospirosis, pyogranulomatous vasculitis in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (Figure 41.14), and in hypercalcemic nephropathy.56-60 (view, professional).Hypercalcemic nephropathy is characterized by varying degrees of calcification and necrosis of renal tubules and collecting ducts. The corticomedullary rim corresponds to increased calcium deposits in this location.57However, the corticomedullary rim is a nonspecific finding that is also frequently seen in clinically normal dogs and cats.58Ring-shaped or ribbon-like structures with an echogenic wall in the corticomedullary region can be seen in the kidneys of dogs infected with giant kidney worms.(Renal dioctophym)in endemic regions.61

Chronic tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis is the dominant histopathological finding in chronic kidney disease, regardless of the underlying cause. This results in poor corticomedullary definition caused by cortical and medullary hyperechogenicity, which is one of the most common changes associated with chronic kidney disease, along with small kidney size, small cortical cysts, and parenchymal mineralization (Figure 41.15). Renal fibrosis can disrupt the close interaction of peritubular capillaries with renal tubules leading to ischemia and cortical infarction, which are visible as linear or triangular hyperechoic lesions in the cortex. Infarcts appear as wedge-shaped, hyperechoic areas in the cortex with an associated cortical defect and decreased blood flow on Doppler examination. Parenchymal atrophy, infarction and fibrosis can result in distortion of the shape of the renal pelvis. At this stage, it is usually not possible to determine the type of underlying kidney disease. Renal dysplasia is usually diagnosed late in the disease process when chronic interstitial fibrosis is present; at this point, the changes in the kidneys resemble those of any other chronic kidney disease.62Ultrasound findings in Cairn terriers with preclinical renal dysplasia include poor corticomedullary definition, medullary hyperechogenicity, and intermittent medullary hyperechogenicity.20

Focal or multifocal abnormalities

Renal mineralization

Kidney mineralization, due to nephrolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization, is common, especially in elderly patients. All types of nephroliths can be detected by ultrasound and are characterized by a hyperechoic surface and a distal acoustic shadow. Stones in the renal pelvis can lead to a blockage either directly in the renal pelvis or if they move into the ureter. Dystrophic mineralization in the renal parenchyma by itself is of questionable clinical significance, but it is often accompanied by other chronic renal changes. Nephrocalcinosis usually occurs along the pelvic diverticula and produces linear hyperechoic streaks with a distal acoustic shadow (Figure 41.16). It is not always possible to distinguish dystrophic mineralization from small nephroliths in pelvic diverticula. Diffuse cortical or medullary foci of mineralization are often not detected radiographically, but appear as punctate hyperechogenicity on ultrasound.

Renal cysts

Radiographic changes due to cyst formation are seen only if the cysts lead to kidney enlargement or distortion of the renal capsule (Figure 41.17). Round filling defects can be seen in the nephrogram phase of excretory urogram or CT, although nodules or masses can have the same appearance. Ultrasonographically, renal cysts are easily identified as anechoic round structures with distal acoustic enhancement and a thin rim artifact (Figure 41.18).21Anechoic cystic contents are more easily distinguished from hypoechoic renal medulla or solid renal nodules when gain settings are temporarily increased. Internal echoes caused by hemorrhage or cellular debris may be noted. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease is seen in longhair cats (autosomal dominant), sometimes associated with liver and pancreatic cysts, and Cairn terriers (recessive mode of inheritance) and can be identified at a young age.21,63In severe cases, when the renal parenchyma is almost completely replaced by cysts, renal function may be impaired (seeFigure 41.17). Cysts are usually located at the corticomedullary junction.21Solitary cysts can occur in any breed of cat or dog and are not clinically significant if the renal architecture is otherwise normal. Small cortical cysts are usually seen in association with chronic degenerative kidney disease. Nodular dermatofibrosis in German shepherds is associated with renal cystadenocarcinoma. Although predominantly cystic, these lesions have a mass-like tissue component that infiltrates the renal parenchyma and may protrude into cysts.64Other differential diagnoses for cystic lesions with a thick wall or solid component include a renal abscess or a cavitary, necrotic tumor.

Perirenal fluid

Perirenal or subcapsular fluid can result from acute renal failure, urinary leakage, ureteral obstruction, hemorrhage, abscess, perirenal pseudocysts, and neoplasia. If the fluid is subcapsular, radiography shows renomegaly. Excretory urography, ultrasound, or contrast-enhanced CT are needed to determine whether the enlargement is caused by perirenal rather than renal disease. Accumulation of fluid outside the renal capsule leads to increased opacity of the retroperitoneal space with a mottled or streaked appearance and loss of renal outline and enlargement of the retroperitoneal space. Extracapsular fluid is sonographically characterized by triangular accumulations of fluid next to the kidney, predominantly on the dorsal side. Even in the absence of urinary tract rupture, large amounts of perirenal fluid can accumulate with acute renal failure (Figure 41.19).65Proposed mechanisms for fluid accumulation include tubular back-leakage of ultrafiltrate into the renal interstitial space in excess of what the lymphatic systems can drain, either due to increased tubular permeability or obstructive disease.65Focal inflammation of the retroperitoneal fatty tissue resulting in increased echogenicity may be seen with renal abscess and pyelonephritis. A large amount of unilateral or bilateral subcapsular fluid is characteristic of a perinephric pseudocyst, which is primarily seen in older cats.66,67Pseudocyst formation is caused by transudate and is associated with underlying disease of the renal parenchyma, such as interstitial nephritis. Affected kidneys are often reduced in size and have signs of chronic kidney disease (Figure 41.20).66

Renal mass lesions

Renal mass lesions can be caused by hematoma, abscess, neoplasia and granuloma. Primary kidney tumors include renal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, and nephroblastoma.68Other tumors that can affect the kidneys are histiocytic sarcoma, plasma cell tumor, metastatic carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma and lymphosarcoma.69Larger masses can be identified radiographically as asymmetric renal enlargement. After administration of a contrast agent (excretory urogram or CT), renal masses remain less opaque than the surrounding or contralateral renal parenchyma, due to lack of filtration and contrast agent concentration. Heterogeneous contrast enhancement within the mass can be seen if the mass is necrotic or cavitated (Figure 41.21). There is great variability in the ultrasound appearance of kidney tumors. Most primary renal tumors present as a complex, well-perfused mass that obliterates the normal renal architecture (Figure 41.22). Cavitated masses are commonly seen in renal hemangiosarcoma. Round cell tumors, such as histiocytic sarcoma and lymphosarcoma, are usually very hypoechoic.70Lymphosarcoma differs from other tumor types in that it is typically bilateral and, especially in cats, is often associated with hypoechoic subcapsular thickening (seeFigure 41.13).55However, focal or multifocal nodules have been described in dogs and cats with lymphosarcoma. An abscess usually has liquid contents surrounded by a thick capsule; occasionally, hyperechoic dots of the comet's tail can be seen if gas is generated within the abscess (Figure 41.23). The fluid is often very echogenic, and the cellular component tends to settle in the dependent part.71Secondary hematomas due to trauma or renal biopsy lead to disruption of the normal structure of the kidney with hypoechoic or hyperechoic areas within the parenchyma and/or subcapsular fluid collection. However, many inflammatory lesions (such as solid abscesses, fungal granulomas, or pyogranulomas associated with feline infectious peritonitis) can appear very similar to neoplastic masses. Needle aspirates or biopsy are required for definitive diagnosis.

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Dioctophyme Renale - an overview? ›

Dioctophyme renale is known as the giant kidney worm, and parasitizes a wide range of primarily fish-eating carnivorous mammals (including mustelids). As humans are not the usual definitive host for D. renale, the parasite does not usually present the way it would in its natural definitive hosts.

What is the treatment for Dioctophyma renale? ›

The only known treatment of Dioctophyme renale is the surgical removal of the worm from the abdominal cavity. Sometimes the kidney has been devastated by the worm and it also needs to be removed. Dioctophyme renale almost always resides in the right kidney. This is found to be true across species.

What are the symptoms of Dioctophyma renale? ›

Individuals with Dioctophyme renale infection (known as dioctophymosis) typically present with unspecific symptoms including hematuria (blood in urine), nephritis, loin pain, renal enlargement, and/or renal colic (intermittent pain in the kidney area), which may result from the rare migration of worms through ureters.

What causes Dioctophyme renale? ›

Dioctophyma renale commonly referred to as the “giant kidney worm” is one of the largest parasitic nematodes. Adult worms are found in the kidneys of many flesh-eating mammal species, including humans. Humans acquire infection with D. renale mainly by eating raw or undercooked fish or frogs containing infective larvae.

What is dioctophyma renale in animals? ›

Dioctophyma renale is the largest nematode that infects domestic mammals and is the aetiologic agent of a serious renal disease, dioctophymatosis. It has an indirect life cycle with carnivores serving as final hosts and earthworms as intermediate hosts.

What are the symptoms of kidney worm in humans? ›

Most of the earlier reports of dioctophymiasis in humans involved the finding of eggs or adult worms expelled in urine, usually accompanied by hematuria, and sometimes abdominal pain, fever, and eosinophilia. Adult worms have been found in the right kidney, left kidney, both kidneys, retroperitoneal space, and liver.

What are the symptoms of a kidney worm? ›

Clinical signs are hematuria, pollakiuria, weight loss, and renal or abdominal pain. Urinalysis may reveal proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria.

How do you know if you have parasites in your stomach? ›

Diarrhea. Nausea or vomiting. Gas or bloating. Dysentery (loose stools containing blood and mucus)

What are the symptoms of bladder parasite? ›

Within 1-2 months of infection, symptoms may develop including fever, chills, cough, and muscle aches. Without treatment, schistosomiasis can persist for years. Signs and symptoms of chronic schistosomiasis include: abdominal pain, enlarged liver, blood in the stool or blood in the urine, and problems passing urine.

What is the most common parasite that invade the urinary tract? ›

Common urinary parasitic infections as described in literature include Trichomonas, Schistosoma hematobium and Microfilaria. Trichomonas vaginalis is known to cause vaginitis and urethritis, and may be found in urine sediments.

What can cause renal dysplasia? ›

What causes MCDK?
  • gene mutations link that can pass from parent to child, although a genetic cause is usually not found.
  • genetic syndromes that affect more than one system in the body, such as the digestive system, nervous system, heart and blood vessels, muscles and bones, or other parts of the urinary tract.

What parasites cause kidney problems? ›

Chagas disease, filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria and schistosomiasis are important parasitic diseases that can damage the kidney. These diseases affect millions of people worldwide, primarily in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and kidney involvement is associated with increased mortality.

How do you get rid of kidney worms? ›

The treatment of choice is physically removing the worm. That's easy if it's swimming around the abdomen. If it's destroyed one kidney, the whole kidney gets taken out. If there are worms in both kidneys, then the animal is in trouble.

What is Dioctophyma renale also known as? ›

Dioctophyma renale commonly known as “giant kidney worm' is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys.

What is the habitat of Dioctophyma renale? ›

The giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale, is a debilitating and potentially lethal parasite that inhabits and destroys, typically host's right kidney, and may also be found in ectopic sites.

What is Dioctophyme renale subcutaneous? ›

The nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782), or giant kidney worm, is a parasite mainly found in the kidney, where its frequency is higher in the right kidney than in both kidneys. It is also occasionally found in the peritoneal cavity and more rarely in other organs [1, 2] and subcutaneous sites [3].

How long can worms live in your body? ›

Adult worms may live up to 17 years in the human body and can continue to make new microfilariae for much of this time.

Can you have worms in your body and not know? ›

A person with intestinal worms may not have any symptoms, but threadworms (Enterobius vermicularis), the most common worm infection in Australia, often do cause symptoms. A person with threadworms (also known as pinworms) may have an itchy bottom or redness and scratch marks around the bottom.

How do you prevent kidney worms? ›

Prevention and Control

renale may be achieved by preventing cats from hunting and eating aquatic worms, fish, crustaceans, frogs or other amphibians.

How can you check if you have worms? ›

How Are You Diagnosed? If your doctor suspects you have pinworms, they may ask you to do a “tape test.” As soon as you wake up in the morning, you'll place a piece of clear tape around your anus, then gently peel it off. Any pinworm eggs will stick to the tape, which your doctor can see under a microscope in a lab.

How can I check myself for worms at home? ›

The best way to diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in the morning before bathing, because pinworms lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a 1-inch (2.5 centimeters) strip of cellophane tape over the anal area for a few seconds.

Will a colonoscopy prep get rid of parasites? ›

First, the clean-out process for the colonoscopy is very thorough (if you've had one you know what I mean) and it wipes out any obvious parasites. Even more important, is the fact that parasites actually live INSIDE the colonic wall which will not be seen with the camera.

What is the most common symptom of intestinal parasites? ›

Common symptoms of intestinal worms are: abdominal pain. diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. gas and bloating.

How do you feel when you have parasites in your body? ›

Here are some common signs of parasites to look out for: Gastrointestinal issues like bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting (especially common with Blastocystis infections) Problems with your skin such as rashes, itchiness, hives, or eczema. Feeling anxious and not being able to explain why.

What are the five parasite that can cause urinary tract infection? ›

haematobium, E. granulosus, T. vaginalis, W. bancrofti, urogenital myiasis and scabies which are among urogenital system parasites.

What is white stringy stuff in urine? ›

Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

UTIs are a common cause of white particles in the urine. UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urethra and make their way to the bladder, kidneys, or ureter, where they multiply and cause the infection. Less commonly, viruses, parasites, or fungi entering the urinary tract may cause a UTI.

What are the five bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections? ›

Most UTIs are due to bacteria that are normally found in your gut, such as E. coli. Other bacteria that can cause them include staphylococcus, proteus, klebsiella, enterococcus, and pseudomonas.

What parasite climbs up urine? ›

Candiru is a tiny Amazonian parasitic catfish reported to swim into urethral and other body openings of unprotected bathers. It is also known as canero, camero, and urethra fish, and is a member of the genus Vandellia.

How do you treat a parasitic UTI? ›

Treatment of enterobiasis is done using mebendazole, albendazole, or pyrantel pamoate, usually single dose followed by repetition after 2 weeks to eradicate emerging parasite. E.

What is the most infectious parasite in the world? ›

Toxoplasma gondii is a microscopic parasite that people carry for life if infected. Scientists say because of the infection rate, many believe that it is the most infectious parasite on the planet.

Is dysplastic kidney serious? ›

Does multicystic dysplastic kidney affect one or both kidneys? The vast majority of multicystic kidneys occur only on one side (left side). Sometimes, it occurs on both sides, and these cases are very serious, since the kidney is responsible for producing the amniotic fluid vital to lung development.

What is the prognosis for dysplastic kidney disease? ›

The multicystic dysplastic kidney has an excellent long-term prognosis, and an affected patient will most likely have one normally functioning kidney for the remainder of their life.

What are the complications of dysplastic kidney disease? ›

Most children born with one dysplastic kidney have no complications and do not need special treatment. Sometimes the other kidney grows larger than normal to make up for the dysplastic kidney. However, they may be at risk of or urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or hypertension (high blood pressure) later in life.

What toxins build up with kidney disease? ›

When kidney injury occurs, many compounds, the so-called “uremic retention solutes” or “uremic toxins,” accumulate in the circulation targeting other tissues. The accumulation of uremic toxins such as p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and inorganic phosphate leads to a loss of a substantial number of body functions.

What viruses infect the kidneys? ›

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus, and Hantavirus infections can induce glomeruolpathy.
Table 1.
VirusRenal involvement
14 more rows
Nov 28, 2018

What bugs cause kidney infection? ›

Causes of kidney infection

A kidney infection usually happens when bacteria, often a type called E. coli, get into the tube that carries urine out of your body (urethra). The bacteria travel up to your bladder, causing cystitis, and then up into your kidneys.

Can Apple cider vinegar remove worms? ›

Apple cider vinegar has numerous health benefits and is known to be effective in treating worms in dogs. Unlike other vinegar, apple cider vinegar increases the alkaline levels in the intestines of the dog. As a result, it creates an inhospitable environment for worms and other parasites.

What can I drink to get rid of worms? ›

Coconut is the most effective home remedy to treat intestinal worms. Consume a tbsp of crushed coconut in your breakfast. After 3 hours, drink about one glass of lukewarm milk mixed with 2 tbsps of castor oil. Drink this for a week to get rid of all types of intestinal worms.

What is the quickest way to get rid of worms? ›

For most people, treatment will involve taking a single dose of a medication called mebendazole to kill the worms. If necessary, another dose can be taken after 2 weeks. During treatment and for a few weeks afterwards, it's also important to follow strict hygiene measures to avoid spreading the threadworm eggs.

What is the meaning of renale? ›

Medical Definition

renal. adjective. re·​nal ˈrēn-ᵊl. : relating to, involving, affecting, or located in the region of the kidneys : nephric.

What is the medical term for poisonous for the kidney? ›

Nephrotoxicity is defining as rapid deterioration in the kidney function due to toxic effect of medications and chemicals. There are various forms, and some drugs may affect renal function in more than one way. Nephrotoxins are substances displaying nephrotoxicity.

What disease does parasites cause? ›

Common global water-related diseases caused by parasites include Guinea worm, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, cryptosporidiosis (Crypto), and giardiasis. People become infected with these diseases when they swallow or have contact with water that has been contaminated by certain parasites.

How do you prevent Dioctophyma renale? ›

Control of the parasite involves preventing dogs from drinking water containing infected annelids and consuming raw fish or frogs. People are very rarely infected, and serve as definitive hosts, similar to dogs.

What is the site of infection of Dioctophyma renale? ›

Dioctophyma renale commonly referred to as the “giant kidney worm” is one of the largest parasitic nematodes. Adult worms are found in the kidneys of many flesh-eating mammal species, including humans. Humans acquire infection with D. renale mainly by eating raw or undercooked fish or frogs containing infective larvae.

What is the Prepatent period for Dioctophyma Renale? ›

The prepatent period for Dioctophyma is approximately 155 days and the entire life cycle can take up to two years to complete (Dyer, 1998, Measures and Anderson, 1985, Senior, 1980). Transmission of this parasite involves eggs being passed in the urine of the infected definite host.

What is the common name for Dioctophyma renale? ›

Dioctophyme renale, also known as the giant kidney worm, is a rare cause of human disease. Humans, one of many animals serving as the primary host, are infected by ingesting an undercooked second intermediate host (usually fish or frogs) that had, in turn, ingested the first intermediate host (a freshwater earthworm).

What is the treatment of bladder worm? ›

Schistosomiasis can usually be treated successfully with a short course of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the worms. Praziquantel is most effective once the worms have grown a bit, so treatment may need to be repeated a few weeks after your first dose.

How do you treat urine parasites? ›

Safe and effective medication is available for treatment of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis. Praziquantel, a prescription medication, is taken for 1-2 days to treat infections caused by all schistosome species. For Healthcare Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public.

What is the difference between Prepatent and incubation period? ›

“Prepatent” means the period between infection and appearance of parasites in the blood. “Incubation” is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms.

What does Prepatent period mean? ›

The prepatent period is defined as the time until the first day that parasites are detected on a thick blood film.

What is the parasite that causes renal tract and intestinal disease? ›

Patients with chronic kidney diseases are susceptible to be infected by some parasites such as Blastocystis sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.

What causes worms in the bladder? ›

Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection of people with the parasitic worm Schistosoma haematobium. These worms live in blood vessels around the infected person's bladder and the worm releases eggs which are released in the person's urine.

What is the most common urinary parasite? ›

Trichomoniasis is the most frequent parasitic disease in the world which occurs because of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites' involvement in urogenital system sexually.

What are the 2 most frequently recovered parasites in the urine? ›

Common urinary parasitic infections as described in literature include Trichomonas, Schistosoma hematobium and Microfilaria.

What parasite travels up urine? ›

Candiru is a tiny Amazonian parasitic catfish reported to swim into urethral and other body openings of unprotected bathers. It is also known as canero, camero, and urethra fish, and is a member of the genus Vandellia.

How do you know if you have schistosomiasis? ›

How is schistosomiasis diagnosed? Your health care provider may ask you to provide stool or urine samples to see if you have the parasite. A blood sample can also be tested for evidence of infection. For accurate results, you must wait 6-8 weeks after your last exposure to contaminated water before samples are taken.


1. Giant Kidney Worm
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4. Parasitologia Veterinária: Dioctophyme renale
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5. DIOCTOPHYMA RENALE , Kidney worm of dog , Kidney worm
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6. SIMILARES TV 33_3 Veterinaria: Dioctophyme renale


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